Garry Kasparov Kimovitch, born 13 April 1963 in Baku ( Azerbaijan SSR , USSR ) is a chess player . World Chess Champion from 1985-2000 and won many tournaments. He is considered one of the best players , of history with Bobby Fischer , Emanuel Lasker , Jose Raul Capablanca , Alexander Alekhine and Anatoly Karpov . He is the first player to have surpassed the 2800 Elo points and got the Elo rating the highest ever recorded with 2851 points .
Kasparov has given up since 2005 to reclaim his title as world champion in 2000 and lost to win against the new generation of players younger and younger, to engage all political forces in opposition to Vladimir Putin and devote himself to writing his two series of books about chess: My Great Predecessor and Garry Kasparov on Modern Chess.
Biography and career
Garik Kimovitch Weinstein was born in April 1963 to a Jewish father, Kim Moiseyevitch Weinstein, who died in 1970, and a mother original Armenian , Klara Chagenovna Kasparian. He then resumed the name of his mother in the Russify, becoming Garry Kasparov.
In 1990 he was the victim of anti-Armenian pogroms in Baku (from January 13 to 16) and is forced to flee from the Azeri capital, as thousands of ethnic Armenians in the direction of Armenia .
He has three children: Polly (born in 1993 his first wife, Masha), Vadim (born in 1997, his second wife Julia) and Aida (born in 2006, his third wife Daria).
In 1973, as recommended by Alexander Nikitin, he entered the Botvinnik school, the best training school chess USSR. It follows the course of Mikhail Botvinnik , a former world champion, Nikitin, and Mark Dvoretsky, specialist endgames. Other teachers have contributed to its formation as Alexander Ivanovich Chakarov, among others in the area of openings . Over the years, when his passes weapons for the world championship, he is assisted by a team of seconds as Iosif Dorfman , Zurab Azmaiparashvili , Sergey Dolmatov , Evgeny Vladimirov and Yuri Dokoyan.
First international success
In 1979, at the age of 16 years and still unknown in the West, Kasparov won his first international tournament of masters in Banja Luka in Yugoslavia , finishing unbeaten on 15 with 11.5 points ahead of big names at the time as former world champion Tigran Petrosian , Andras Adorjan , January Smejkal and Ulf Andersson . In July, he won his first ranking Elo International, 2545, which ranks 38th in world ranking .
In 1980, he won the world junior championship and won the title of International Grandmaster and the following year, in December 1981, he won the USSR championship tied with Lev Psakhis . In 1982 he wins the tournament of Bugojno and the interzonal of Moscow and thus enters into the cycle of candidates for the world championship. In this cycle, in 1983, it eliminates Aleksandr Beliavski (+4 -1 = 4) in the quarterfinals. In 1983, the semi-final candidates against Viktor Korchnoi should have been held initially at Pasadena in California under the auspices of FIDE. However, Soviet authorities refused to let Kasparov visit to the United States and FIDE declared the loser by default. The president of FIDE, Florencio Campomanes , however, managed to organize the match in London, with the agreement of Korchnoi who obtained the end of the boycott by the Soviet federation and he was the subject since his defection in 1976 . In London, eliminates Kasparov Korchnoi (+4 -1 = 6), then to Vilnius in the final played in 1984, former world champion in 1957, Vassily Smyslov (+4 -0 = 9).
World Championship matches against Karpov (1984-1990)
Kasparov is playing his first final of 1984 world championship in Moscow against Anatoly Karpov , the champion of the world title since 1975. After 5 months and 48 games, neither player managing to not get the 6 wins needed, this endless game is finally interrupted by the World Chess Federation (FIDE) to "preserve the health of players." This interruption is criticized by Kasparov when he was led 5-3 after leading 5-0. Subsequent editions foresaw a maximum of 24 games.
In 1985, during the second match against Karpov, he became world champion at age 22 with a score of 13-11 (+5 = 16 -3).
Kasparov retains his title against Karpov still, in 1986 in London and Leningrad (+5 = 15 -4) in 1987 in Seville (4 = 16 -4), and in 1990 in New York and Lyon (4 = 15 -3).
Dissension in the chess world (1986-1995)
In 1986, Kasparov believes that the interests of professional players are not defended in the FIDE, and then created with Bessel Kok, a combination of high-level professional players, the GMA ( Grand Master Association ), it holds between 1988 and 1990 competitions prestigious tournaments as the 6 World Cup CMG (1988-1989), won by Kasparov. Internal dissension within the association, the withdrawal of main sponsor, Bessel Kok , and the creation of the PCA had defeated her in the early 1990s .
In 1993, Kasparov founded the Professional Chess Association (PCA) with the winner of the FIDE Candidates Tournament, Briton Nigel Short . In September, the PCA organizes London a world championship "classical" in claiming the tradition begun by Wilhelm Steinitz .
In September 1993, Kasparov outweighs Short by a score of 12.5 to 7.5 (6 = 13 -1) in the context of a world championship organized by the PCA, an organization not recognized by FIDE, which earned him a temporary exclusion
FIDE does not recognize this game and believes that both players are excluded from the cycle of world championships, she organizes a match between Anatoly Karpov and Jan Timman for the title of FIDE World Champion. This is the beginning of a schism that lasted until 2006. Kasparov later admitted that this separation from FIDE was a grave mistake . FIDE and Kasparov briefly excludes Short's Elo rating in retaliation but reinstated by the end of 1993.
In 1995, Kasparov retains his title as world champion by defeating the PCA Indian Viswanathan Anand in the World Trade Center in New York (4 = 13 -1).
Loss of world title (2000)
Following the withdrawal of main sponsor of the PCA in 1996 ( Intel ), the organization of the world championship is transferred to the ephemeral World Chess Council in 1998, the rights were then sold to a private organization, Brain Games Network in 2000 then bought in 2002 by the Einstein Group and finally transferred to Dannemann in 2004.
In 1998, Alexei Shirov defeated Vladimir Kramnik in a match of 10 games (+2 -0 = 7), but Kasparov believes that it is not possible to find a sponsor for a match against Shirov (whose score against Garry Kasparov is very bad) because of the lack of suspense associated with such a game.
From June to October 1999, he played a part over the Internet against the rest of the world, at a rate of once per day. Facing him, 50,000 players from 75 countries, advised by four professional players, including Etienne Bacrot . He won in 62 moves .
In July 1999, Kasparov achieved the highest Elo rating of all time with 2851 points. Regardless of the title of world champion, he remained No. 1 worldwide ranking Elo FIDE from 1984 until his retirement in 2005, over 20 consecutive years, sharing first place with only Vladimir Kramnik in the ranking January 1996 . He was nicknamed the "Ogre of Baku" and "the monster with a hundred eyes that see everything"
After announcing a match against Anand in 1999, he finally against Kramnik defended his title in 2000 in London . Kasparov lost the match (+0 -2 = 13).