## Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is the pressure of blood in the arteries. Also known as blood pressure because this pressure is the force exerted by blood against the walls of arteries, it stretches the artery wall (see section tension); strict sense, the "tension" resulting from 'pressure' and the 'elasticity of the wall.

The international unit for measuring pressure is the pascal (Pa). However, the use that blood pressure is often measured in inches of mercury (cmHg), sometimes in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).

It is expressed by 2 measures:
The maximum pressure during the contraction of the heart (systole)
The minimum pressure at the time of "relaxation" of the heart (diastole).

If one sets the voltage as a single figure, without unity, there is then the mean arterial pressure (MAP) expressed in mmHg. It is calculated as follows:

MAP = (systolic pressure + 2 × diastolic pressure) / 3

Note: in everyday language (eg the doctor), the voltage is indicated by two numbers corresponding to the systolic pressure followed by diastolic pressure expressed in mm Hg; example "twelve / eight" is not 12.8 but pressure systolic 12 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure of 8 mm Hg, and is usually displayed on a meter with the numbers 120 and 80 mmHg.

### Physiological changes

Blood pressure is the result of complex interactions between different systems. For simplicity, we can compare the fluid mechanics with the electric circuit and Ohm's law: U = R × I:

• U corresponds to the difference in pressure between two places;
• I, electrical current can be compared to blood flow, it depends on the pump function of heart and the total quantity of blood in the body (called the blood volume):

cardiac pump function depends directly on the frequency of contraction, but also the strength of the latter;
blood volume is the result of a balance between water intake and physiological losses (urine, feces, sweat, breath);

• R, resistance, actually corresponds to the resistance of small vessels to blood flow:

if they shrink (vasoconstriction), the resistance rise;
instead, they expand (vasodilation), the resistance decrease.

Other elements physiological pulse pressure or differential pressure, Poiseuille's law.

The regulatory mechanisms like:

• Nervous vasodilation by the vagus nerve to slow the heart rate
• humoral (that is to say, by producing chemicals that are spread throughout the body and act as distance):
• The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, causing vasoconstriction of the renal arteries, renin produced in the juxtaglomerular cells, allows the conversion of angiotensinogen (produced by the liver) to angiotensin.
• Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin peptide produced in the neurohypophysis).
• Factors tissue vasodilators.

This explains the great variability of blood pressure numbers from one minute to another in the same individual: basically, the effort and stress are increased blood pressure, lowers the rest.

Taking voltage is subject to many artifacts, it should ideally be taken lying down, the patient is at rest, we must not ignore the "white coat effect" (the patient's blood increases due to the nervousness induced by the measure). It must also verify the match between the size of the cuff and the arm: if the first is too small, we may have a false elevation of blood pressure data (effect "big arm").

## Asthma

Facts & Figures

In developed countries, asthma get more attention soon, because the number of people with asthma has increased significantly since 1950. Meanwhile, this increase is stabilized and there appears a tendency to drop used to be. Yet is it right that in the big cities one in six children has asthma.

Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases. The number of people with asthma between 1984 and 1997 greatly increased, especially among children. The period after the number is roughly constant. According to the National Compass of the RIVM in the Netherlands there are 519,800 people with asthma. The number of children with asthma is 115,000 (the last known figures from 2003).

Causes & heredity

There is no one cause for the development of asthma. The predisposition to asthma is hereditary. If one parent has asthma or allergies, then a child has 50% chance of getting asthma or allergy. If both parents have asthma or allergies, then a child even 75% chance of getting asthma or allergy.

In a proportion of people with asthma (about 10%) plays prolonged exposure to small particles during a work role. This is called occupational asthma.

Most people with asthma are allergic (70 to 80%). For them, the allergic asthma triggered by stimuli that they breathe. The reaction that follows is via antibodies of the IgE type. In 20-30% of the cases, no underlying allergic reaction and is called "intrinsic asthma". There is a link between asthma and obesity.

The hygiene theory suggests that the immune system in the western population is not hygienic enough exposed to allergens. It was for this reason target innocent body chemicals or pollen etc. This theory had not only the genetic component one possible explanation could be that asthma occurs more in certain families.

Disease

Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways, which is associated with an increased excitability and a narrowing of the airways. Complaints arise when people inhale irritants. These substances provoke them tightness, coughing or wheezing out.

Examples of these substances are:

Inhalation (breathing) of allergens, including:

• excrement and dust mites
• pollen
• Pets Dander
• fungi and spores of
• cold air
• exceeded ozone threshold

Other things that can cause symptoms:

• exercise
• infection of the respiratory
• Some medications, including aspirin
• food (reinforced complaints)

Some asthmatics, particularly in proper treatment, prolonged symptoms virtually Fri An asthma attack can occur unexpectedly.

Diagnosis of Asthma

To diagnose the lung function measured with a spirometer. Often a reversibility performed. It examines whether the narrowing of the airways with drugs is to eliminate. In a pulmonary function reversibility is determined before and after administration of a bronchodilator. If someone after inhaling a bronchodilator blows a much higher value than before, it likely has asthma. To determine whether there is an allergy, a skin test or RAST test done.

In a skin test, the potential allergic substances in the skin. If one is allergic to dust, there is a swelling. With a (RAST test), the blood is tested for specific allergens. This test can be done already in infants. With one provocation test examined the response of the airways to non-allergic stimuli from outside. Several solutions are inhaled histamine in increasing strength. By measuring lung function before and after stimulation with these substances, the reaction of the airways in these substances.

Treatment of Asthma

Asthma medication: left Seretide, right salbutamol

Medicine for Asthma

The main drugs in the treatment of asthma are inflammatory drugs and bronchodilators. Antiinflammatory combat the inflammation in the airways. This will protect them against respiratory stimuli. Bronchodilators ensure that widen the airways so that an attack can be prevented or repaired. Bronchodilators also help against asthma shortness of breath on exertion.

Other resources can complement the treatment of asthma, such as anti-allergy, an annual flu vaccination against viral infections and antibiotics for a respiratory infection caused by bacteria.

Asthma inhaler

Lifestyle

For people with asthma is as important for everyone not to smoke / passive smoking to avoid, enough to move and exercise and healthy to eat.

## Chronic Asthma

This is a hyper-activity chronic bronchial little subject to external agents. Chronic inflammation is often slow and gradual installation. Usually this since childhood, it can occur in early childhood by repeated attacks of asthma or chronic bronchitis sibilants. In this case, there is a worsening of the asthmatic syndrome, which is a chronic (when it existed until that triggers an exacerbation). Because of the slow and gradual installation of inflammation, it may go unnoticed, especially because the patient has time to get used to breathing and gene gradually lose the notion of "normality" breathing up that the discomfort becomes too invasive in the patient's life. Untreated this form of asthma usually develops in respiratory failure.
Although the real causes remain to this day debatable, a predominant hypothesis is that this form of asthma is caused by an autoimmune reaction. This means that the patient's immune system attacks its own lungs, and maintaining over time the inflammation.

## Allergic asthma

Generally characterized by the occurrence of one or more crises caused by an overreaction of the bronchi of the patient to an external agent (usually allergenic). This is the form of the asthma worse in the short term; the degree of bronchial response may be particularly important and sometimes fatal.
The allergic asthma manifested by a sudden obstruction and rapid progression of bronchial voice, the patient in crisis choking suffocation (inability to breathe properly to prevent a new inspiration) and lack of oxygen in the blood (inability to breathe preventing oxygen (due to the inspiration) and saturating CO2 in the body).
This form of asthma may develop in chronic asthma, particularly if the allergen exposure is constant and long duration.
The asthma attack is always a medical emergency life-threatening and requires special handling.

## The exercise-induced asthma

This is an asthma manifested by crisis occurring during physical exertion. The cause is defined as an effort traumatic for the bronchi. Those are an effort seeking particularly the bronchi and / or perform in conditions that make the lungs work harder. The effort is typically a cardio-training (requesting the cardiac system in particular so breathing). Environmental factors such as aggravating asthma are the cold, wind and an environment with poor ventilation. The cold and wind, promoting airway inflammation, also promotes the crisis.
This type of asthma is often isolated or sometimes associated with chronic asthma or allergic, becoming a complication of type-induced asthma.
Asthma attacks could be facilitated by intense stress Indeed, the stress effect of accelerating the heart rate and develop a syndrome of hyperventilation, facilitating or exacerbating asthma.

## Asthma

Types of asthma and clinical manifestations

The bronchi have particular role to protect the lungs from foreign agents or external aggression, including the restriction of the diameter bronchium. The asthma is manifested by an overreaction of the bronchi in relation to his environment. The airways of asthma are inflammation and their diameters are reduced. The mucus produced in response to inflammation has further reduced the diameter of the bronchi, making the difficult end; we speak of expiratory airflow obstruction. The causes of inflammation and especially the conditions of events can establish three main types of asthma.

Although each patient correspond to one or other of the profiles of asthma, it is only a manifestation of general disease, it is not uncommon for a chronic asthmatic known attacks of 'allergic asthma or exercise induced asthma and vice versa.

In all types of asthma found the following symptoms:

• Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath;
• Chest tightness (feeling of heaviness in the chest)
• A tachypnea or conversely a bradypnea, that is to say an increase or decrease in respiratory rate;
• A whistle at the end (called breathing wheezing);
• A decrease in saturation of the hemoglobin oxygen mainly in severe attacks;
• A tachycardia;
• A draw in the event of severe crisis;
• A cough may be chronic or dominate the night.
• Crises that may occur after exercise (known then induced asthma or more precisely of broncho-spasm, post-exercise)

Only the intensity, duration and causes of these symptoms vary from one type to another.

## Asthma

The Asthma (from Latin meaning "breathing")  is a disease of the respiratory system affecting the upper airway including the two bronchi, defined as difficulty breathing at the end. The disease is explained by three mechanisms General:

• an inflammatory with (edema) of the epithelium, bronchial;
• a bronchoconstriction;
•  a bronchial hyper-activity (chronic or not) manifested by increased secretion of mucus, especially due to remodeling of the upper airways

History

Asthma is a disease known since antiquity. Aretaeus around the first century, refers in one of his works. Moses Maimonides in the twelfth century also mentions the disease.

The Treatise of the Asthma of John Floyer (1649-1734), published in 1698 and based in part on his own experience Is the first medical textbook addressing fully asthma.

The French writer Marcel Proust was suffering from asthma since childhood disease affecting up to his work.

Epidemiology

In France, a national survey conducted by the National Fund of Health Insurance (CNAM) in year 2007 on all patients from 5 to 44 years treated for asthma, found that 900 000 people were receiving regular treatment with three or more prescriptions for asthma medications. Of these 900 000 patients, 27%, mostly in the age group 20-29 years had asthma inadequately controlled, and require at least four times a year to use a medicine only intended to address the crisis In France, there are approximately 15 000 hospitalizations annually for asthma, and 1 000 deaths

## Asthenia

Asthenia, or  de-sthenia (lack of strength, vigor) and has a weakening of the body, physical fatigue. By extension, it can affect the mental state, the libido and the intellect.

The fatigue is a symptom and a cause for medical consultation very common: In general medicine, 50% of patients complain of fatigue. The issue of consultation is to differentiate between a general fatigue, often a reaction to stress, chronic physical or mental (which can be closer to fatigue, but sometimes secondary to systemic disease) and real alarm signal of a specific pathophysiological process.

### Etiology

Asthenic type 'general fatigue'

• Stress Chronic;
• depression;
•  neurosis (chronic anxiety in particular);
•  chronic fatigue syndrome (sequelae of mononucleosis);
• Menopause;
• Reactions to certain drugs.

Asthenia revealing in the context of a specific condition:

•  Iron deficiency (anemia due to iron deficiency);
• certain viral infections: influenza, mononucleosis, HIV (primary infection), hepatitis B and C (the only symptom of HCV), rhinitis, chronic;
• certain bacterial infections: brucellosis, Q fever, Lyme disease, tuberculosis;
• parasitic infections such trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness);
• Genetic diseases especially the hemochromatosis gene (hyperabsorption iron);
• cancer;
• nutritional deficiency or poorly absorbing vitamin B9 (folic acid);
•  myopathy;
• myasthenia gravis;
• Reaching the spinal cord;
• asthenia iatrogenic: abuse of sedatives (medicines hypnotics), benzodiazepines, certain antipsychotics;
• substance abuse: marijuana, alcohol, heroin, morphine and its derivatives;
• Food poisoning due to consumption of mushrooms poisonous;
• acute radiation above 2 Gy;
• Disease in Philadelphia chromosome (1 or 2 cases per 100 000 people).

Causes of asthenia

• Anemia
• Anxiety
• Cancer
• Chemotherapy
• Chronic fatigue syndrome
• Chronic pain
• deconditioning/sedentary lifestyle
• Dehydration and electrolyte disturbance
• Depression and PMDD
• Diabetes
• Fibromyalgia
• Heart disease
• Hypothyroidism
• Infections
• Medications including amiodarone, Anastrazole, and fentanyl
• Narcotics
• Paraneoplastic syndrome
• Polymyalgia Rheumatica
• Pregnancy/postpartum
• Pulmonary disease
• Renal disease
• Sleep disorders
• Temporal arteritis

## Asphyxia and the causes of asphyxia

Asphyxia

The asphyxia is a medical term meaning the case more or less along the circulation of oxygen in the body. The asphyxiation of humans is a medical emergency.

Without external action, asphyxia leads quickly to the unconscious and then to death. Prolonged asphyxia can also cause effects in brain.

The causes of asphyxia are:

• The flooding;
• The strangulation;
• The absorption of gas stifling;
• The compression of the thorax;
• The narrowing of the larynx;

Problems during birth may cause asphyxiation.

## Anthrax (disease)

Routes of contamination and effects on the body

The different contamination by Bacillus anthracis generate various effects on the body. There are three forms of contamination:

• Cutaneous anthrax.
• Coal gastrointestinal tract.
• The inhalation anthrax.
• The cutaneous form

It is rare in animals but is most common in humans (95% of infections caused by Bacillus anthracis). It is caused by contact between spores and injury. A macule is formed at the site of inoculation, which first causes itching, then a day later, the form of ulcers surrounded by vesicles. The button is pressed and painless, it dries and then covered with a black crust (hence the name of disease). In 80% cases, the wound healed without complications. Nevertheless, in some cases the swelling increases and increases in volume causing a facial deformity or limb. Initially a high fever appears that without treatment causes severe complications. These complications evolve to death in 5% to 20% of cases. The last known case in France would be one of three people infected by a cow slaughtered in November 2008 on a farm in Moselle.

The gastrointestinal form

The infection caused by eating meat containing endospores, an infection caused by Bacillus anthracis from the gastrointestinal tract is uncommon, however. Coal gastrointestinal tract appears where spores are found in the gastrointestinal tract above and below. In the first case, the oropharyngeal form is characterized by the appearance of an oral or esophageal ulcer with lymphadenopathy regional lymph and sepsis. In cases where spores are present in the gastrointestinal tract below the nausea and vomiting is rapidly followed by diarrhea, bloody, perforation of the intestines and sepsis, a ascites mass may appear. The mortality rate of this form is variable but high and can reach 100%.

The respiratory form

This form of coal from the inhalation of spores through contaminated particles (aerosol). Inhalation is followed by a nonspecific influenza-like illness accompanied by fever, muscle aches, headache and cough dry. Spores were deposited in the alveoli are phagocytosed by macrophages. These eventually burst and the spores are released and transported by the lymphatic system to the tracheobronchial lymph nodes. The spores give rise to vegetative forms which multiply and produce toxins to sixty days later. Two to four days after onset of symptoms, it is a sudden worsening of the overall situation. There is insufficient respiratory severe acute chest pain and hypotension. A radiograph of the chest then presents a picture typical of the expansion characteristic of the mediastinal lymphodénopathie mediastinal bleeding and mediastinitis. Sometimes the patient died a few hours after the start of this second phase. A meningitis or hemorrhagic septicemia anthrax may be an additional complication. Coal lung accounts for only 5% of cases, but its mortality rate is estimated between 90 and 100% in its historical form, dropping to less than 50% in forms related to bio-terrorism

Natural Transmission

Infection usually results from exposure to anthrax spores from infected animals dead or alive or contaminated animal products. Transmission between humans has not been proven, patients do not pose a danger and it is not necessary to isolate them.

Transmission through a biological weapon

The deliberate spread of Bacillus anthracis spores in the air can cause respiratory form of anthrax. Attacks using of contaminated envelopes anthrax at the end of 2001 the United States have shown that this bacterium is a germ that can serve the Bioterrorism

Treatment

The antibiotics administered soon adapted, in sufficient doses and for long enough have a certain efficacy. There are different medications to treat an infection with Bacillus anthracis. They are prescribed according to patient age and degree of the disease. The main ones are:

•  the ciprofloxacin
• the ofloxacin
• the vafloxacine
• the doxycycline
•  the amoxicillin
• the pefloxacin.

There is a vaccine as well as immunoglobulins specific

A antibodies, monoclonal the Raxibacumab directed against a component of the toxin has been tested successfully in animals in inhalation anthrax

A curative effect of walnut leaf against anthrax was reported in 1853 by Louis Pomayrols confirmed in 1880 by Casimir Davaine and in 1955 by Emile Lagrange but does not seem interested in the pharmaceutical industry. It remained unknown to all treaties, including Leon Binet was surprised in 1961

## Anthrax (disease)

Anthrax Bacteria
Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by acute bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It is a anthropozoonosis, that is to say, a condition that affects both animals than humans.
Bacillus anthracis is a biological weapon potential since the end of the Second World War and was specifically mediated following the attacks of September 11, 2001.
History
In 1850, the Pierre Rayer said that Davaine associated with his research, has seen little threadlike body in the blood of sheep with coal There is no evidence or Delete Davaine is suspected in the officer corps of the disease In 1855, the German Aloys Pollender (who claimed he made his discovery as 1849) also described the corpuscles in the blood of animals infected with anthrax, note the appearance of the bacteria particles and, unlike Davaine conjecture that they are the cause of the disease In 1863, Davaine made the anthrax further study, now considered the first evidence of microbial disease transmissible to humans In 1876 Robert Koch discovered the ability of the anthrax bacterium to form spores, which can make it very tough.
In May 1881, at Pouilly-Le-Fort, near Melun, Shepherd makes a famous experiment in vaccination against anthrax in 50 sheep. (In this experiment, including the extent to which one can accuse Pastor of misappropriating an idea of Henry Toussaint") The Pasteur Institute has always strains of Bacillus anthracis of different virulence.
The existence of anthrax toxin was demonstrated for the first time in 1955
Description of the germ
Secondary structure of anthrax toxin is in Greek key pattern.
Bacillus anthracis is a bacterium gram positive, the bacterium is stationary (has no flagellum), which distinguishes it from other bacilli that are mobile, the bacterium is sporulating and type respiratory aerobic / anaerobic optional. The spores of anthrax are highly resistant. They germinate into a vegetative form when they are in environments such as blood or tissue, men or animals, rich in amino acids in nucleotide and glucose. Despite their high resistance, spores do not occur, however they can survive for decades in soil. There is a problem of destruction of Bacillus anthracis by the resistance of spores to drought, heat, UV ultraviolet, the gamma rays and many substances disinfectant. Bacillus anthracis possesses two virulence factors:
• First, the capsule allows it to escape phagocytosis.
• Then there are two toxins composed of three proteins distinct (the antigen protector, edema factor and lethal factor). When the first two proteins are associated, they form the toxin œdématogène whereas when the antigen is associated with protective lethal factor is formed of the lethal toxin. This directly affects the virulence of the bacterium, which suffers a disability, the virulence is reduced by a factor of 1 000.

## Consumption of drugs among young people

Talking about causes of drug use is at least risky. A diversity of known factors are compounded by the fact that none of them seems to be necessary or sufficient condition to account for home consumption. In each case there is an original combination of factors that explain their particular route. It therefore seems more appropriate to speak of the conditions that favor this process, the risk factors that make it more likely. The most relevant of these factors are:

• - Curiosity: By experience, which is a natural and desirable characteristic of adolescence. So we have to educate, to become a source of maturation and stop focusing on risk.
• - Peer group pressure: trend towards homogeneity within the group, as it facilitates the adoption of certain signs of identity, dress, music, etc .- has a leading role in initiating drug use.
• - Search for pleasure: the consumption of drugs has always been linked to a desire to disconnect from the overwhelming demands of reality, in an attempt to make the most of leisure time. When during childhood and adolescence and we learn other forms of entertainment, drugs can play a vital safeguard.
• - Control inconsistent family: when family rules are too rigid, relaxed or unchanged, it is difficult to internalization by children and adolescents clear behavior patterns, so that their socialization outside the family will be greatly affected.
• - Availability of drugs: if the environment in which the teenagers live their leisure time there is a notable presence of drugs, home consumption is favored.

They are obviously the only risk factors but are among the most relevant and above all be factors that can act in advance.

Have identified a large number of factors that decrease the probability of entering in drug use. Some of them are related to cultural and legislative changes in our society (to eliminate alcohol advertising and snuff, raise money, rigorously enforce laws prohibiting sale to minors, widespread in prevention, prohibition of smoking in places public etc.)..

Other features are related by subject, each of the people throughout his life have to take the decision to use drugs or not and whether you routinely tested once.

In relation to these factors are known successful approaches and various proposals designed some of the following objectives:

• - Channel positively adolescent curiosity so that, keeping alive their exploratory drive is uninterested best to risk behaviors and situations. It is what is intended, for example in information campaigns through various media (brochures, Internet, etc..) Seek to provide young people with useful information on the risks associated with drug use. Initiatives to make rational arguments the impulse of curiosity, thereby supporting a more open decision-making before the expected offer of drugs that will be sooner or later.
• - Promote education in values and attitudes: appreciation, respect and responsibility for own health and the community. It is the object, eg the various existing prevention programs in schools that seek to awaken in students an awareness that health does not depend on chance but that is largely conditioned by the decisions that each person takes. Thousands of educators at all stages who spend much of their time to this task.
• - Encouraging self-esteem in order to reduce the risk of having an interest in chemical formulas to shore up a fragile self-esteem. Besides the aforementioned preventive programs, there are thousands of schools in Spain of Parents in that debate the most appropriate educational relationship with their children, are addressed in multiple ways to develop each child and adolescent positive self image that will make them less vulnerable to external influences.
• - Develop social skills: to help them act with reasonable autonomy in relation to others, to neutralize the positive pressure from the group of friends to the drug and, if necessary, to change the very landscape group. Again the school and family share many initiatives to train children and adolescents in these guidelines assertive relationship that will help them to respect others and themselves claim to equal consideration.
• - Promoting a rich and diverse experience of leisure: to help the teenager to find satisfactions that do not compromise their development, and build positive ways to enjoy leisure, from the possibilities of the territory it inhabits. They are in this sense, many of experiences in the Spanish towns and cities, aimed at educating teenagers in a rich entertainment and experiences to promote leisure activities for alternatives to "running out".
• - Encourage a reasonable exercise of parental authority, that allows children and adolescents internalize acceptable standards of living and increasingly responsible decisions, even when they act motivated by curiosity and pleasure. Schools of Parents occupy a unique position here at a time when young people themselves to their parents claim the existence of clear boundaries.
• - Reducing the presence of drugs: in social settings by moving adolescents. For easier access to drugs increased consumption, greater and greater difficulties arising abuse. Hence the importance that drugs are not a permanent reality and ubiquitous in the territories adolescents and youth.

## Dental Implants:What are they, Objectives, How is it treated

### What are dental implants?

They are artificial substitutes for natural tooth roots. They are small tubes made of titanium screws placed in the jaws.

The purpose of dental implants is that people who lack one or more teeth to chew, speak and smile normally.

### Objectives of dental implants

They support a full denture, making it more secure and comfortable.
They can support a fixed bridge, eliminating 2 problems:

- Do not use removable dentures
- No neighbors teeth grinding. (help in replacing a single tooth, without disturbing the neighbors).
Improve Facial appearance: Each tooth has a crown and root.

There are several methods to replace the crown, but only the implant can replace the root, so do not waste your jawbone and facial volume shows a more youthful look.

Allowed to eat it all: Even if the fit is excellent, people with dentures can not eat whatever they wanted, or with the same comfort as with natural teeth, if something can be done with dental implants.

Improve comfort and speech: The teeth that seem to support dental implants, they run and are noted as natural and therefore do not present the inconveniences of dentures to speak or move.

Have a lasting effect: Dental implants are a long term solution that can last a lifetime, while the traditional treatment of false teeth without root should be repeated every so often overtaken by.

How is it treated?

You use the same anesthetic technique as for extraction, operating time of an implant ranges from 40 minutes to 1 hour.

Then the patient is removed on its own, it is recommended not to return home driving.

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