Concept of Arts(Part I)
Attributes of painting, sculpture and architecture (1769) of Anne Vallayer-Coster.
The definition of art is open, subjective, debatable, even historians and philosophers agree. There have been many definitions of art: "art is the right ordering of reason '(Thomas Aquinas)," art is something that sets its own rules "(Schiller)," art is the style' (Max Dvo?ák ), "art is an expression of society" (John Ruskin), "art is the freedom of genius" (Adolf Loos), "art is the idea" (Marcel Duchamp), "art is the novelty" ( Jean Dubuffet), "art is the action of life" (Joseph Beuys) and, finally, Dino Formaggio said that "art is whatever men call art." The concept has been changing with the passage of time until the Renaissance, art was considered the only liberal arts, the architecture, the sculpture and painting were "craft". Art has always been a major means of expression of the human being, through which expresses ideas and feelings, the way it relates to the world. Their role may vary from the more practical to decorative, can have a religious content or simply aesthetic can be lasting or ephemeral. In the twentieth century is lost even the substrate material: Beuys said that life is a means of artistic expression, emphasizing a vital action. So, everyone is capable of being an artist.
The word art comes from the Latin ars, and is the equivalent to the term Greek τ?χυη (techne, from which 'technical'). Originally applied to all production done by man and disciplines of learning to do. Thus, an artist was both the cook, the gardener or builder, as the painter or poet. Over time the Latin derivation (ars -> art) was used to designate the arts-related disciplines of aesthetic and emotional and Greek derivation (techne -> technical) for those disciplines that deal with intellectual products and used items. At present, it is difficult to find that both terms (art and technique) are confused or used synonymously.
In the Greco-Roman antiquity, the cradle of civilization western culture and first thought about art, art was seen as a skill of human beings in any field of production, is practically a synonym for 'skill': ability to construct an object, to command an army, to convince the public in a debate, or to take measurements agronomists. In short, any skill subject to rules to specific provisions that make it the subject of learning and development and technical upgrading. In contrast, the poetry, which came from the inspiration, was not classified as art. Thus Aristotle, for example, that defined the art as "permanent readiness to produce things in a rational way," and Quintilian was it stated that "it is based on a method and order" (ordine et via). Plato in the Protagoras, spoke of art, believing that is the ability to do things through intelligence, through an apprenticeship. For Plato, art is a general sense, is the creative capacity of human beings. Cassiodorus said his appearance in art production, according to rules, identifying three main objectives of art teaching (doceat), touch (moveat) and please (delectet).
Concept of Arts(Part I)