Concept of Arts(Part II):
During the Renaissance began to take shape a change of mind, separating the crafts and sciences of the arts, which first included poetry, hitherto considered a type of philosophy or even of prophecy, what was decisive for the publication in 1549 of the translation Italian on the Poetics of Aristotle. This change was influenced by the social situation of the Renaissance artist, more valued than their predecessors because the products they manufacture acquire a new status of objects for aesthetic consumption, owing to the interest of rich and noble Italian notables had the beauty, that becomes both a means of highlighting socially, increasing patronage and encouraging artistic collectibles. arose in that context several treaties theory about art, such as Leon Battista Alberti by Lorenzo Ghiberti. Alberti was influenced by Aristotle, claiming to bring a scientific basis for art. He spoke of decorum, treatment of the artist to bring the objects and artistic issues a measured way, a perfectionist. Ghiberti was the first accrual of art history, distinguishing classical antiquity, medieval period and what he called "rebirth of the arts."
Allegory of Painting (1666) of Johannes Vermeer.
With the mannerism began modern art: things are no longer represented as they are, but as seen by the artist. Beauty is relative, is passed the unique beauty of the Renaissance, based on science, the many beauties of Mannerism, derived from nature. Appeared in the art a new component of imagination, reflecting both the fantastic as grotesque, as can be seen in the work of Bruegel or Arcimboldo. Giordano Bruno was one of the first thinkers who foreshadowed modern ideas: he said that creation is infinite there is no center and no limits-not God nor man, all is movement, dynamism. For Bruno, there are so many arts as artists, introducing the idea of originality of the artist. Art has no rules, is not learned, but inspiration comes from.
The following advances were made in the eighteenth century with the Enlightenment, which began producing certain autonomy of the artistic event: the art away from religion and the representation of power to be faithful reflection of the will of the artist, focusing more on sensible qualities of the work not in meaning. Jean-Baptiste Dubos, in Critical reflections on poetry and painting (1719), opened the way to the relativity of taste, reasoning that aesthetics is not given by the reason but by feeling. Thus, art moved to Dubos, comes to mind in a more direct and immediate knowledge that rational. Dubos made a democratization of taste, opposing regulation academic, and introduced the figure of the 'genius', as an attribute given by nature, which is beyond the rules.