Concept of Arts(Part V)
Moreover, the function of art was challenged by the writer Russian Lev Tolstoy: in What is Art? (1898) raised the social justification of art, arguing that art being a form of communication can only be valid if the transmitting emotions can be shared by all men. For Tolstoy, the only justification is the contribution of art to the fraternity man: a work of art can have social value only when transmitting values of fraternity, that is, emotions that drive the unification of peoples.
Representation of The Nutcracker, by Pyotr Tchaikovsky.
At that time began to approach the art from the field of psychology: Sigmund Freud applied psychoanalysis to art in a childhood memory of Leonardo da Vinci (1910), arguing that art would be one way to represent a desire, a repressed instinct, so sublimated. He believed that the artist is a figure narcissistic, close to the child, reflecting their desires in art, claiming that artistic works can be studied as the dreams and mental illness, and psychoanalysis. His method was semiotic, studying the symbols, and believed that a work of art is a symbol. But as is the symbol that symbolized the making, we must study the works of art to get to the creative source of the work. Similarly, Carl Gustav Jung's psychology and related disciplines such as philosophy, sociology, religion The mythology, the literature and art. In Contributions to analytical psychology (1928), suggested that the symbolic elements present in the art are "primordial images" or "archetypes" that are innately present in the "collective unconscious" of mankind.
Wilhelm Dilthey, from the cultural aesthetics, developed a theory about the unity between art and life. Foreshadowing the avant-garde art, Dilthey already envisioned in the late nineteenth century, how art moved away from academic rules, and how it was becoming increasingly important public function, which has the power to ignore or praise the work of individual artists . Found in all this an "anarchy of taste," which he blamed on social change in interpretation of reality, but he perceived as transitory, being necessary to find "a healthy relationship between the aesthetic thought and art. Thus, salvation of art offered as the "human sciences", especially the psychology of artistic creation should be analyzed through the prism of the psychological interpretation of fantasy. In Life and Poetry (1905) presented the poetry as an expression of life, as 'experience' (Erlebnis) which reflects the external reality of life. Artistic creation is therefore intensify our vision as a function of the outside world, presenting it as a coherent and meaningful.