Concept of Arts(Part VI):
The twentieth century has meant a radical transformation of the concept of art: the overcoming of ideas rationalists of the Enlightenment and the transition to more subjective and individual concepts, starting with the Romantic movement and crystallized in the work of writers like Kierkegaard and Nietzsche, are a break with tradition and a rejection of classical beauty. The concept of reality was challenged by new scientific theories: the subjectivity of time Bergson, the relativity of Einstein, the quantum mechanics, the theory of Freudian psychoanalysis, and so on. On the other hand, new technologies make the art of role change, as the photography and film and are responsible for realizing the reality. All these factors cause the genesis of abstract art, the artist no longer tries to reflect reality, but their inner world, expressing their feelings. The current art has continuous oscillations of taste, changes simultaneously as well as classical art was based on an immutable metaphysical ideas, the current root Kant, finds pleasure in the social consciousness of pleasure (mass culture). We must also appreciate the steady decline in illiteracy, as formerly, the people can not read, the graphic art was the best medium for the transmission of knowledge, especially religious, a role that is no longer necessary in the twentieth century.
Source of Marcel Duchamp. The twentieth century represents a loss of the classical concept of beauty for a bigger effect on the artist-audience dialogue.
One of the earliest formulations was that of Marxism: the work of Marx was clear that art is a "superstructure" determined by cultural social and economic conditions of human beings. For Marxists, art is a reflection of social reality, although Marx himself did not see a direct correspondence between a given society and the art it produces. Georgi Plekhanov, in Art and Social Life (1912), made an aesthetic materialism that rejected the "art for art and individuality of the artist outside the society that surrounds it. Walter Benjamin once again had an impact on avant-garde art, which for him is" the culmination of the dialectic of modernity ', the end of intent as an expression of art tote the surrounding world. He tried to elucidate the role of art in modern society, conducting a semiotic analysis in which art is explained by signs that the man tries to decipher without an apparently satisfactory result. In The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction (1936) analyzed the way the new techniques of industrial reproduction of art can change the concept of it, losing its character as a unique object and hence its halo mythical reverence, this opens up new ways of conceiving art for Benjamin yet-unexplored-but that will make a free and open relationship with the artwork.
Theodor W. Adorno, like Benjamin belonging to the Frankfurt School, defended the avant-garde art as a reaction to excessive modernization of modern society. In Aesthetic Theory (1970) stated that art is a reflection of cultural trends in society, but without being a true reflection of this, since art is nonexistent, unreal, or at any rate, represents the but as there can be something else, to transcend. Art is the "negation of the thing" that through this denial transcends shows what there is in it original form. It is apparently a lie, the nonexistent presenting as existing, promising that the impossible is possible.