Renaissance or Renaissance architecture is that art produced during the period of Renaissance Europe, which spanned the centuries XV and XVI. It is characterized as a moment of rupture in the history of architecture, particularly with respect to the previous architectural style: the Gothic, while, by contrast, seeks its inspiration in a proper interpretation of classical art, particularly in its slope architecture, which was considered the perfect model of the Fine Arts.
Palazzo Medici Riccardi, of Michelozzo, Florence, 1444. Example Florentine palace.
Produced innovations in different fields: both the means of production (techniques and materials in construction) and the architectural language, which resulted in a complete and adequate theorizing.
Villa Farnesina, Peruzzi Baldassarre, 1511. Example Renaissance villa.
Another notes that characterizes this movement is the new attitude of the architects, who spent the anonymity of the craftsman to a new concept of professionalism, scoring in every project his personal style was considered themselves, and eventually get that consideration social, as artists and humanists interdisciplinary, as it corresponded to the conception of the humanist Renaissance. We know little of the developers and the bold Romanesque architects of the great Gothic cathedrals, while not only large Renaissance paintings, but many small buildings or even mere projects were carefully documented since its inception, and surveyed by the writers contemporaries.
The History of Renaissance architecture, as this same, usually divided into two major periods in Italian called the numeral for the years:
- Fifteenth century or the Quattrocento, the early Renaissance, when the figure highlights of Filippo Brunelleschi and Leon Battista Alberti. It is an architecture that aspires to classicism and puts the theoretical underpinnings of the canonization of style which will characterize the next period.
- Sixteenth or Cinquecento, in turn divided into two phases:
- Completion or maturity phase of the Renaissance middle, covering the first quarter of the century (until the sack of Rome, 1527). During this period, the main Italian architects were involved in various projects of the start of construction of St. Peter (Donnat Bramante, Antonio da Sangallo the Elder, Raphael and Michelangelo).
- Phase of Mannerism: the late Renaissance, from the mid-sixteenth century to the beginning of the seventeenth century (when you start the Baroque architecture). At this stage, following the maniera of Michelangelo, the individuality of the architects begin to overcome the classical theoretical project. Emphasize teachers as Andrea Palladio and Giulio Romano