Biology, commonly called the "bio" is the science of living. In the broad sense of life sciences, it covers some of the natural sciences and the natural history of living things (or have lived). However the distinction between organisms living and nonliving is sometimes difficult and the determination of the specific subject of biology is not obvious.
Life is presenting in so many forms and at different scales so that biology covers a wide spectrum that ranges from level molecular, from that of the cell, then the body, down to the population and the ecosystem. These levels show that the area of life is strongly hierarchical and as and as biology progresses, she specializes in multiple areas, all more or less connected to others.
During the history of biology, founding principles have been discovered. Most important, governing the whole field of life and even the set are:
- the changes which with every generation a natural selection is made, bringing the characters of living things are best adapted to a particular situation to be more likely to be present in subsequent generations
- the inheritance, which ensures the transmission characteristics innate to an individual to its offspring.
Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, 1893
The word biology is formed by the composition of two words Greek bios "life" and logos which means "study".
This word has been defined in the late eighteenth century by the naturalist French Jean-Baptiste Lamarck: "All that is generally common to plants and animals like all the faculties which are unique to each of these beings without exception, must constitute the unique and vast subject of a special science is not yet established who did not even have a name, and when I give the name of biology. "