Status of biodiversity in the world
The evaluation of the millennium, after the Rio conference has re-attracted world attention on the rapid decline of biodiversity. This decline was further increased from 2005 to 2008 by the mid-stage of a study on the economics of ecosystems and biodiversity which concludes that without strong action, the associated loss of ecosystem services s 'speed. At the pace of early 2000, only 11% of existing natural areas in 2000 have disappeared before 2050 and nearly 40% of land currently used extensively (which allows the survival of a significant part of the regular biodiversity) will be converted to intensive agriculture. Overfishing, pollution, diseases, invasive species and coral bleaching could cause the disappearance of 60% of coral reefs by 2030. This threatens the functioning of the planet and human societies and economies made this same report, which evaluates a scenario of status quo will lead to an "annual loss of welfare due to the loss of ecosystem services" that can reach 6% of global GDP by 2050.
Examples of countries and hot spots are rich in biodiversity
- Brazilian is regarded as "representative" of one fifth of global biodiversity, with 50 000 species of plants, 000 vertebrates 5, 10 to 15 million insects and millions of micro-organisms.
- India represent 8% of known species, with 47 000 species of plants and 81 000 animal species.
Java, Borneo and Sumatra are home for high biodiversity, but deforestation continues there.
Services provided by biodiversity
The pharmaceutical industry is one of the first beneficiaries of biodiversity. Many active ingredients of drugs have been developed from molecules natural.
Biodiversity is the primary source of services provided by ecosystems. It is also the engine of ecological resilience as it is a natural resource self-sustaining (with certain conditions). It provides all the oxygen is vital that we consume, what we eat (food crops, livestock, fish ...); it contributes to the purification and the water cycle, and large rings biogeochemical and climate regulation.
It provides fiber for clothing, wood - energy for heating, construction of dwellings, the stationery. It inspires the product or drug.
The Agrobiodiversity refers to uses of biodiversity associated with food.
Biodiversity has contributed in many ways the development of human cultures. And conversely, the man has played a major role in increasing diversity at genetic, species and ecosystem.
Examples of the usefulness of diversity against the homogenization of genetic varieties of crops, we can cite two
- In 1970, 85% of corn grown in the United States was nearly homogeneous. The resistance of this plant to the blight, fungal disease, was overcome by the fungus and the outbreak caused considerable damage.
- In 1980, for the same reason, 90% of the Cuban tobacco crop was destroyed by blight.
This shows that the genetic diversity of natural populations of animals and plants seems like a strategy promoted by natural selection in response to continued pressure of rapidly evolving pests.
Ecosystems also provide "media production" (fertility of soil, sediment, functions predators, decomposition and recycling of organic waste and dead material, etc..) And "services" such as the invaluable production and purification of 'air, water purification, stabilization and moderate climate, reducing the consequences of droughts, floods and other environmental disasters.
If biological resources represent an ecological interest for the community, the economic valuation of biodiversity is increasingly emphasized. New products developed through biotechnology, and new markets created. For society, biodiversity is also an industry and profit, and calls for proper management of resources.
Biodiversity has also become a "mirror of our relationships with other living species, with an ethical rights, duties, and educational need. The educational aspect is often provided by the school (at exits environmental education for example), by associations of environmental education (such as NPC, the EIPC, seeds, Network School and Nature ...) or by organizations to protect nature, such as the WWF
Biodiversity, natural heritage is vital for every nation and country, is strongly linked to human needs and the health and nutrition ... and richness. For she has also an economic aspect: it can be used to manufacture food products, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics ...