The Asthma (from Latin meaning "breathing") is a disease of the respiratory system affecting the upper airway including the two bronchi, defined as difficulty breathing at the end. The disease is explained by three mechanisms General:
- an inflammatory with (edema) of the epithelium, bronchial;
- a bronchoconstriction;
- a bronchial hyper-activity (chronic or not) manifested by increased secretion of mucus, especially due to remodeling of the upper airways
Asthma is a disease known since antiquity. Aretaeus around the first century, refers in one of his works. Moses Maimonides in the twelfth century also mentions the disease.
The Treatise of the Asthma of John Floyer (1649-1734), published in 1698 and based in part on his own experience Is the first medical textbook addressing fully asthma.
The French writer Marcel Proust was suffering from asthma since childhood disease affecting up to his work.
In France, a national survey conducted by the National Fund of Health Insurance (CNAM) in year 2007 on all patients from 5 to 44 years treated for asthma, found that 900 000 people were receiving regular treatment with three or more prescriptions for asthma medications. Of these 900 000 patients, 27%, mostly in the age group 20-29 years had asthma inadequately controlled, and require at least four times a year to use a medicine only intended to address the crisis In France, there are approximately 15 000 hospitalizations annually for asthma, and 1 000 deaths