Types of Botulism
- Type A botulism (serotype pathogenic for humans and animals)
- Botulism type B (serotype pathogenic to humans)
- Botulism type C (serotype pathogenic certain animals including cattle and birds, rather in the Far West in France since the 1980s)
- Botulism type D (serotype pathogenic certain animals, including dogs)
- Botulism Type E (serotype pathogenic to humans and some animals found in 1935, with a worrying increase in poultry production in France since 1997 Botulism It seemed endemic to north of the northern hemisphere, cracking up now in Canada and Japan where it touches including seabirds. In France, for the first time an episode of sudden deaths of more than 5000 to 10000, or 16,000 birds gulls (black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus), essentially) was found in the Strait of Pas-de-Calais on the frontage littoral du Pas-de-Calais mainly in Canche Bay and north of it, in February 1996, perhaps because a large quantity of fish damaged or discarded at sea in a discharge local)
- Botulism type F (serotype pathogenic certain animals)
- Botulism type G (serotype pathogenic certain animals)
Symptoms forms in food and wound
The symptoms of botulism conventional occur most often between 12 and 36 hours after ingestion of the botulinum toxin, but they can sometimes occur early as the 6th hour or later after 10 days. They usually include a dry mouth, difficulty swallowing, an incomprehensible speech, double vision, vomiting, diarrhea important, especially a generalized muscular weakness. If not treated, these symptoms can worsen to paralysis of muscles of the limbs and trunk (especially respiratory) which can lead to death. In all cases the toxin secreted by C. botulinum that causes the disease, not the bacteria itself.
There are forms of wound botulism associated with the voluntary or involuntary penetration of a contaminated substance, often following the intramuscular or intravenous injection of a contaminated substance. It may in particular include drugs such as the heroine of poor quality can cause serious problems requiring hospitalization and mechanical ventilation. In the latter case, the symptoms appear from six hours after injection and persisted up to two weeks. They may be double vision, eyelids heavy, confusion of language or speech, difficulty swallowing, bilateral arm weakness, and flaccid paralysis accompanied by respiratory distress
Epidemiology, landscape epidemiology
The episodes of botulism are occasionally found in nature, often in summer for C. botulinum
In the United States is reported on average 110 cases of botulism per year. 25% fall in food borne botulism, 72% of infant botulism, and the rest of wound botulism. Outbreaks of food borne botulism involving two or more persons are usually due to consumption of spoiled canned homemade. The number of cases of food borne botulism and infant has changed little in recent years, but wound botulism has increased because of the use of the heroin brown (black tar), especially in California.
It is a disease so rare in France;its impact annually is about 0.5 cases per million inhabitants. These are sporadic cases, most often food borne meats, canned meats and manufacturing family, rarely industrial, craft or by inoculation with the drug. The risk of human botulism acquired from poultry or bovine sources is low in this country, but recent outbreaks in other countries with a significant number of patients (several dozen) showed a case fatality rate of over 5% which calls for caution