Major educational areas
Knowledge, skills, and expertise
Basically, we can distinguish four main educational areas: knowledge, know-how, the being and life skills.
Knowledge is intellectual knowledge. The educational research relating to knowledge aim to find ways learning allowing learners to acquire knowledge: observation, reading, writing, mathematics, knowledge of Man and Environment, metaknowledge
The know-how to match skills, to master the experience of the exercise of a craft, artistic, intellectual or domestic. These skills are acquired through the practice of an activity and learning of motor automatisms. The educational research on the skills aim to find and implement the educational facilities for learners to acquire skills and practical skills and / or intellectual.
The educational research on the existence of the aim being to find ways to teaching, in educational situations, to promote and achieve the optimal state of being: state of health, wellness of motivation, confidence and satisfaction of physical needs and psychological (joy, pleasure, "freedom", "collection", recognition, security, justice, integrity, authenticity, capacity, privacy, diversity, comfort, creativity, affection. ..).
Knowledge-being is the ability to generate actions and reactions adapted to human society and the environment. This ability is acquired partly by the knowledge of knowledge and specific skills. The educational research on life skills, aim to find ways for teaching learners to acquire the best control of actions and reactions appropriate to their organization and environment preservation, health, empathy, control staff, proper behavior, respect, collective action, mutual aid, assertiveness, control, communication, conflict management ...
Building your knowledge
Modern pedagogy considers that the traditional single transmission (education) must give way to a pedagogy in which students built (not create) the knowledge itself. For example, according to this view, it seems more important that a student is able to build the concept of department and to identify from a map or a dictionary, rather than knowing by heart all departments without knowing the function, operation, etc.. Similarly, it seems more important to consult the Internet or a dictionary to know that by itself an extensive repertoire of vocabulary, with its correct spelling.
But this concept is challenged, sometimes with harsh words (intellectual terrorism, training, formatting, coterie of IUFM ). He is accused of carrying a share of responsibility for academic failure and social system currently charged. Opponents denounced as artificial, inefficient and stressful the "construction" by the students know that actually requires a higher level than their own, sometimes even doctoral university (such as building numbers and an operation as simple as subtraction in primary, by the method sets) when it involves not taken unnecessary risks (about traffic or other potentially dangerous situations, for example). They argue that children can and must, with equal pleasure and motivation, learning "by heart" and obligation if necessary, otherwise the departments, at least the alphabet, multiplication tables, the main rules of all kinds (social, grammar, mathematics, physical) The protesters, in turn, are accused of steps backward and reactionary, in bad faith, etc..