The evolution and progress of society have meant that agriculture, livestock, fisheries are no longer the center of the economy. In industrially advanced societies the proportion of wealth derived from the primary sector is minimal. Now it is the essential factor in all societies. We can stay without computers, no cars, no appliances, no televisions, no gossip magazines, not airports. Amenities lose but we will continue to survive. With all the luxuries, with a perfect performance of the stock exchange, if there is no food we would die. We would have all the comforts and luxuries of the world, but final settlement.
The amendments have been agriculture and animal production enables us to rethink the fundamentals of capitalism, which derive from the current liberal measures and protectionist in some cases, in others within the market economy. The transformation of rural areas come from the scientific and technical applications. The political and economic measures always lag behind in this regard. Taking the initiative in this area, to balance the material basis of production with the institutional measures, shall pass the rest of society.
The peasant world has gone from being the majority population to become a minority and increasingly decline. This has happened since the industrial revolution, especially during the last century. In the past thirty years has intensified even more. It has been a drastic change in the history of mankind.
The classic analysis of the economy were as a priority the need to supply food for the population. The problem was the production. The changes have been such that what is worrying now is distributing what is produced in large quantities and avoid overproduction. The productivity becomes an issue and at a cost, not scarcity, but because of the excess. Managing so that he can feel more liberated society without poverty or need, because there is no real basis for the lack of means for survival, as if it once was. Solved the method of increasing the supply depends on their general use of economic construction, political and cultural society.
The primary reaction in response to the innovative factor of the machines, which was represented Simondi, who theorized to renege on the mechanization of work and all that without production increases proportionally with labor. He thought, correctly, that there would come a time when much of it left over and would not need many people in the field. So what? For a time could go to cities to a rural exodus unstoppable, to work in the secondary sector, then the tertiary, but there comes a time when there is no possibility of absorbing more, what then? The Revolution extreme technology that situation. When Adam Smith made his study of the Wealth of Nations says that evolution at different times gave rise to two systems of political economy in relation to the enrichment of peoples, trade and agriculture. Two centuries after developing his theory have been two more systems, the industrial and technological.
Redefining the economic concepts is becoming increasingly necessary. The theories that are overcome or correct is not always a mistake, are replaced by others that are adapted to new realities. Adam Smith maintained that labor and wheat are two commodities capable of measuring the value of products. John Stuart Mill considered that the failure of precisely such an assertion is that depends on the improvement of farming methods. Made a distinction that allowed understanding the evolution of the economy: The value of goods down the production costs, while the price is determined by supply and demand. This author understands the need to increase the purchasing power of citizens to make the economy prosperous. We will deepen further in the work of this author. Suffice it to analyze which measured century and XIX analyzes that overproduction leads to satisfy the desire to work for all by reducing working hours.
The modern definition of economy that arises from neo-liberalism within the so-called welfare state, is globalization. Results of a policy focused on the supply. Resolved basic needs in a sector of the global population, new market development for supply on the consumption of luxuries and new needs, very high and sometimes superfluous. The capital, wealth and work are still the factors that determine the dynamics of economic development. It happens that not match the dynamics of wealth creation. In mid-December, 1999 was formed the G20, comprised of what make up the G-7 and other emerging economies. The chairman of the forum, Paul Martin, Minister of Finance in Canada, warned that with such a framework is assumes the risk that markets will reduce the capacity of States to provide protection to citizens. The only way to balance this situation is to focus global financial management on a basis of minimum distribution, but powerful (eg. Basic income).
Let's analyze each particular situation that we have targeted. The postulates imposed in the ministerial summit of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Seattle, USA In early December 1999 directly affect the primary sector of the economy and Leon, which is 9% of GDP. The so-called Millennium Round, which aims to reorganize the world trade as a primary measure proposes to dismantle the system of grants and subsidies, which are the basis and foundation on which develops the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in Europe. Such measures would mean the loss of livestock and agricultural subsidiary.
The agriculture in Spain, whose development depends on the market, where fruits and vegetables, will benefit from the single currency as long as that transaction costs are diminished, as well as disadvantages and risks that meant changes currency changes. But those who depend on subsidies, livestock and crops, are hampered by increasing competition in a globalized market. This is reinforced by the gradual erosion of EU aid to farming. If the economy moves to groups and populations of their duties pecuniary benefit the growth and development of the economy, these advantages will enable those who affect to be removed from production. At least a minimum guarantee of survival, which generates a base of social stability and balance to achieve global progress. Not just for the vanguard of the winners, whose distance from the losers is widening, but in order to lead to a confrontation that could erupt in many ways.
The need to maintain a primary economy in Europe is no longer a question of production, to become a survival factor in rural areas, whose decline is increasingly irreversible. Set population in villages is a necessity to maintain the environment and maintain the minimum labor necessary to work the land. What European policy should address is the custom channel of support and not on the basis of productivity. First because it alters market conditions and second because it does not help the real thing. People should recover by itself and then doing the work that I considered each individual or family. It is for this reason that agricultural subsidies should be restructured on the basis of the Basic Income, as early in the process we propose.
The second week of May 2000 the European Commission and Council decide to slash the budget chapter of the Common Agricultural Policy, from 2.004. It aims to reduce direct aid to agriculture with the aim of liberalizing agricultural market. Some trade unionists in the field had foreseen this situation, considering such aid to the field, as a sector can not survive when such incentives account for 30% of the income of their producers. Addition led to them from profiting from the "cazaprimas. Agricultural organizations to save on call but giving aid to those in need because they certainly engaged in the agricultural and livestock work professionally. His approach is to claim aid to the country by implementing modular grants.
- Indicated in the annual report for 1999 which aims to diversify production in general, but especially in poorer nations, without specifying on what terms. Assuming that factor will depend on the new farm technology will force many sectors included in the strategy of multinationals to use genetically modified seeds. This is to solve the problem of rural poverty in the poorest countries, as their low cost position will give them more competitive. However it is common sense that this relationship will continue to operate while maintaining the poverty line.
- In making the offer in countries with very low standard of living must be the minimum price, below production costs in the country of origin, that can only be made for the disposal of surplus products.
I understand that the market clearing surplus could come with the provision of a Basic Income, that will lower prices to the market as surplus to be resolved through further distribution, or cheaper. At the same time strengthening consumer agriculture in developing countries. Otherwise we have to corporate networks have been developed which convert the field into a business subsidy itself. Specifically in Spain on 20% of owners buy 80% of the grants. The fifteen largest owners of rustic land in Spain receive as much as 15,000 small owners of farmland. Owners who have land to farming and agricultural holdings, just as strategic investment for fortunes that come from other sectors, it is the case of receiving large sums of money in aid. So invest to win such grants. Fernando Mora Figeroa received in 1999, 831 million pesetas. The Duchess of Alba, 271. Flir Samuel, 180. So other wealthy characters like Juan Abelló, Mario Conde, the Count of Maz, Miguel Bose and not only these people but many companies whose shareholders are banks that put in the area of the capital to take advantage of the aid on the one hand and let time pass to revalue the land, which later may have a housing use.
Support from Common Agricultural Policy resulted in the province of Leon, in 1999 the 13'5% of total agricultural production. Although agricultural income has gone up does not reach the threshold of profitability, which is valued at nearly twice the minimum wage when it was indicated during 1'39 times that salary. While that is averaged for each individual registered as a worker, and in the field each household works at least marriage. The situation then is not hopeless, and depopulation is more responsive to a criterion of personal and social mentality. The villages lack the necessary services to enhance the population, health and education and to develop various opportunities for work or personal concerns.
In Germany, agriculture accounts for 0.8% of GDP, Sweden 0.4%. In total EU agriculture has little weight in the national economy, accounting for between 3 and 5% of GDP. France with 2% of GDP of agriculture in the European Union grows the 21'6% of agricultural production. Spain the 12'3%, meaning 3% of GDP. Greece however is working on 4% of European production, with a value of 7% of GDP. It means that we have a primary sector in decline from the economic point of view and a fully extended technology level and gradually progresses. There are already supply problem, but rural population, marketing and distribution since it usually increases in production are prevented, through quotas, in a beet, corn, milk and other products. Final agricultural output per job, on average, amounts to 4'4 million. So, what is planned is to avoid the massive surplus, by economic criteria by which seeks to maintain equilibrium in the markets. This situation is completely new in the history of humanity. To adapt to these circumstances we need a vision of the economy in general totally new. The turning point for this change is the reference to work.
Is anticipated for the period 2000 - 2006 rural development budget of 4,300 million per year, and a total of 195,000 million for structural funds. For an area that covers 80% of EU territory with only 25% of the population. Let us also note that more than half of the owners of the farm community has more than 55 years.
In 1998 agriculture received the CAP Spanish 112.608 million pesetas in aid, 164,631 equivalent to basic income. With these can enhance the market district and the formation of cooperatives. Avoiding maneuvers that affect the environment and small-holders as to convert irrigated land to be partakers of subsidies, so that they become an end and stop being a medium. No longer a support but a modus vivendi. But you can not dispense with them without causing serious damage to a society that has been rather neglected. Something that is often overlooked in institutional policies that are aimed at young farmers wanting to install. Not only is speak on economic criteria and the modernization of farms, or give tax concessions, but must address multicultural factors and enhance health and education services in these nuclei. When, exactly the opposite is true. The scheme of sin, into the bargain, are being unfairly distributed the grants. They charge more than the large landowners who already have more income and benefits from their agricultural activity. Basic income is set to an equal basis, to let the differences be dealt with in the market.
Something we must understand is that the rural exodus has not been a purely economic factor. Could serve as a fulcrum for many young people leave, but kept going when the population and land reached equilibrium, at least to live tolerably well. Much of the motivation to leave, not always better material conditions, was closed mentality of peoples, education excessively conservative and dependent elderly, for example on the issue of land ownership is not transferred to more that inheritance. The rural youth in the cities sought other ways of living.
Sticking to the economic aspect, one must look to the origins of the Common Agricultural Policy during the years 50-60, was aimed at self-sufficiency in Europe. When he had reached and surpassed the unions representing family farms claim that a second phase is geared to enhance quality and safe food for a market nearest to avoid a chain of intermediaries that make the high price of products very little impact on the producer.
Basic Income is a factor individually established that stabilizes the market crisis and ensure a season of poor harvests, without affecting the external factors and foreign market production. At the same time will help maintain a balance with the productivity of developing countries so that they can target their products to people in need and not much to export with the primary objective of removing funds for state or a very small proportion of the population. If anything can affect the basic income in the international market regulation directly for the Third World population. This will allow your self. At the same time will accelerate the market in developed countries.
In international markets Spanish agriculture is affected by the lack of profitability. In 1999 the EU agreements with Egypt enabled the country to sell 20,000 tons of beans, 250.000Tn. potatoes, 1,500 tons. and 60,000 tons of strawberries. oranges, at very low prices compared with the possibilities of Spanish producers. The lack of rigorous controls both raises the tonnage of these imports. What aggravates the matter. Why Spain can not compete with such prices? because they are below cost of production, because in Spain is higher than the value of land, labor and water prices.
The agreements with the Maghreb cause as much of the same with the horticulture sector. Spain is more damaged than Holland and France for the production cycles of these countries is different from Morocco and Spain, whose production is sold at the same time. In Extremadura the share of tomato puree in 1999 meant a loss for that reason, 2,000 million pesetas.
One proposal Warning Gonzalez Escribano is agricultural and livestock development in the primary sector to establish a minimum wage for professionals in the field, instead of maintaining subsidies and grants to emerging production very expensive. Estimated that this move is just half the money paid by the state in distributing aid to the sector. Happen that such a measure also allows you to restrict subsidies to maintain a professional and market criteria to show the profitability of the sector. It thus expel a disruptive effect on the economy, as are the companies that buy land and speculate with them so they have more expensive land prices disproportionately from 1993, which imposed a bonus system based on the criterion of number hectares. The need of rural areas with ecological and sustainability require such proposal to extend the villagers, not only farmers, which would help to decongest the cities. I understand this is a partial measure of the field for the industry only, but generally applied roots in its evolution towards a universal Basic Income. Consider that in the villages on the one hand life is cheaper, the other is kept open real market economy, and the third is the perception of basic income is not just for the head of family or professionals, but for each individual.
The policy of subsidies on agricultural productivity has created a fiction. Under such conditions it is virtually impossible to recover the function of the market. Progress requires a conversion of agricultural aid. To become individualized, as basic income, not production or no production surplus. This measure enables auto consumption market is stratified, in coexistence with other county, state, national and international. Which amplifies the rural world and the primary sector will regain its initiative and stop being a financial burden. It is necessary for agriculture and livestock to maintain a balance with other economic forces. Rightly notes the American economist, Theodore William Schultz, a Nobel laureate in Economic Sciences in 1979 shared with his countryman Arthur Lewis, he studied the importance of human resources in agriculture. Critical hard to sacrifice this area for industrial development. Especially severe in developing countries. Farming makes powerful nations do not acquire other, more powerful units.
The rural development requires the participation of society, which is immersed in it. Seeing a three-pronged drive, however, increasingly more separated: the economic, social and ecological. Working in the field does not is a mere economic activity, is a way of being and living particular, outside which breaks generational change. He has forgotten to educate the field, develop facilities to meet the needs of the people. Since the closure of unity schools, textbooks and programs directed at urban adult models, the remoteness of health facilities has meant that rural is dislocation. To cover such an imbalance are invested many items of public money, without an effective outcome.
The primary sector has been shifted from the economy, with everything that is important and essential. If you decide to invest some lucky fortune to make it happen not carry out his plans in the business of farming. Fifty years ago, however, if it was a profitable work to buy land and work with the family or lease. The accumulation of hectares and its subsequent sale purchase of flats provided the many men and women from the countryside in the Sixties. Forty years after the agricultural land is very undervalued in relation to urban heritage. It is for this reason it is a benchmark for implementing the Basic Income for that sector, as well as groups of unemployed, housewives and students, at first. Taking as an added bonus that allows you to flatten the economic theories of political economy, which tend to refer to many times the land question.
Often heard in villages and farming is not profitable, they work according to parameters such as eating so served. True, many peasant families engaged in work have given their children run and accumulated small fortunes, with the effort and the savings of many years, with the collaboration of all family members, though some who were off work only certain times of year holidays. We refer to the family farm. The problem of day laborers, seasonal workers, is another and are without property and without a fixed fee. Their work is necessary, but only a few months of the year. However, the salary they earn is not enough to live the rest of the year. Precisely to keep such work should retain such workers a month in child support that does not work. Just as it subsidizes the land owner, why not these seasonal farmworkers? Low wages and conditions of scarcity that makes them develop into a typical activity for immigrants, whose standard of living in countries of origin is so low that makes them profitable.
Formulas have been experienced for this type of relations, whose members in places like Andalusia and Extremadura is part of a broader social substratum. The errors have been conditional aid while working days, which resulted in corruption cases targeting the municipalities more hours performed. And that aid was eliminated when the laborer hired labor time determined, so that losing aid work, instead of assuming a benefit becomes a negative consideration. It is further boosted with the model of socialism Andalusian municipal job placement in a chain that led to influence peddling and political frames of cohesion within the network responsible for governing parties. It multiplied the bureaucracy, which extended to the field work, making many tasks inefficiently and destabilizing the labor market. It has clearly been a political reaction to resist the interests of large landowners and large families. After this pulse requires any individual and within economic parameters to address the possibility of a labor market. real and effective.
Agriculture must be governed by the different markets, is the globalized world, the county or for small processors. When supply ceiling touches as well as demand for certain products, the business relationship is tight. Unable to economic growth in this sector. Incentives and institutional support will be reconverted into individualized basic income, fostering the fruits of agricultural labor as a benefit and empower other rural activities to benefit the environment. Also to avoid speculative maneuvers with products or sites that negatively affect the environment and unbalance the economy to the detriment of those with fewer resources. it remains as the backbone of the necessary land conversion, the application will allow to extend well beyond, to give rise to a rural sociological change.
Emphasize the different nature of the Basic Income, in respect of public attention, which need not be undermined. These may be directed towards the decentralization of health services, education and transport once the population is fixed, and the means to do is give the possibility of life in relation to the capacity of the environment. The productivity in the agricultural environment has increased dramatically over the past fifty years. Improving the sector has, paradoxically, the end of their social development. Data that we have in mind for the rest of the economy. What once were twenty people in a week, today makes it a half a day of work. It is perhaps the area where technology has changed over the economic relations of production. Agricultural machinery has revolutionized the growing of crops and chemical treatments of crops to endure or not lost by any disease. Which continues to advance. Moreover the freezers and other items that appear normal have caused us an unprecedented, something that our ancestors made them move from one world to another completely different. Flatten the social forms of these characteristics is what elucidated.
It is evident that the production is not only maintained but increased. Public services are derived from taxes, but not on those where it has to tax or to make possible the Basic Income, because it would jeopardize social conquest improves and sometimes threatened by each policy become more extensive privatization. But it takes the strength of society to improve and expand public services. Basic Income as a whole share of the profits, which are still produced and are increasingly concentrated in fewer hands. As a result of a social good, as is scientific knowledge, some of these gains have to revert to those who are not cut off the economic process by the application of such progress. But as we have said, being a right of citizenship, extends universally to all people. We say a part because it is not correct to annul it as a anti-capitalist by definition, when that wealth is produced precisely what in theory would fight. We'd be killing the goose that lays golden eggs. This is a modification which is transforming today's civilization and allows evolution of society. The changes were made based on cultural, historical and personal, but from the reality and dialectic in the day. With what we've taken a significant step in the history of humanity.
The role of work is increasingly sophisticated in certain groups. Far from pursuing livelihood aims to accumulate property. It works to have two cars, two houses and an apartment in the summer and maintain a standard of living full of lavish spending. We find ourselves at the other end of the subsistence economy. But the economy continue to focus at work, which is the fundamental basis of livelihoods. Once the technological advancement ensures survival of the society overall employment as a concrete measure to be applied rather than a generic standard, so that progress is taken into account in the analysis of political economy and apply it to new guidelines that move towards a new social concept. Happen spontaneously, but not in sight for lack of a set of ideas that the concrete and mature. Note that the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) results in the 60 to ensure food security, so that the population of the EEC were supplied by their own resources. He tried to secure the amount. In the late nineties his policy is oriented towards food security, in order to improve and ensure their quality, understanding the interdependence of agriculture with the environment. It plans to create by 2000 the European Food Control Agency. the role of employment in the field is very different and the requirements for living in the villages are based on other priorities.
The primary use of subsistence production is guaranteed to exist in abundance, so that the surplus is out of supply and demand, but that productivity is needed to cover subsistence and therefore must be maintained. It is possible because there is enough wealth to ensure the production and consumption profitable even without trade. Then this primary consumption, to facilitate the Basic Income. Other consumption side, which are social, subjective, shall be governed by the market. If the former is not guaranteed, we must labor is cheapened, precisely because of market saturation and precarious contracts, working hours and part-time employees without a stable and permanent project is configured as a new way of slavery, only adapting a basic income can make work a wise decision to free secondary and needs while simultaneously ensuring that the first order, which also include food, shelter, clothing and of course on the basis an existing public health and education, which is an individual right and for all. Consider that a general feeling of the subjects of our society is surrounded by material comfort, feel prisoners in their work schedule and lifestyle.
To understand the possibility of what we aim must be understood from the situation of agriculture in the parameters of society's economic welfare. The agricultural and livestock production has a maximum use value, but due to the application of technology, both in machinery and in the products used, thanks to the sciences of chemistry and biology, its exchange value has fallen the maximum. The surplus has no exchange value, indeed devalues the rest of the production. We must spend money to remove such production or to prevent the planting or her to grow up beyond what the market requires. In a subsistence economy, its exchange value is maximum, until applied scientific elements are introduced to increase production and keep it for longer, their exchange value was a central element in analyzing the economy as a whole to the classical theory of s. XIX. Agricultural production has gone to be a residual for the economy, which have a real substance to be of prime necessity to live. The marginal utility reaches a peak, but while certain objects involves the disappearance of the market and therefore the product, food is necessary to sustain its development, because you need to eat (maximum value in use). It is a given, such as air or water. It requires work, which if not paid with market forces has to subsidize, and thus acknowledges the present society, through its institutions. It is understood that the marginal utility and change becomes social utility. What if we apply the same scheme to the whole economy? What if we developed this course of action to its logical and reasoned application without being driven by the inertia of the past or theories are rooted in reality thirty years ago? Basic income would see as something natural and normal.
For David Ricardo, in his "Essays on the benefits," the land of diminishing returns is that to extend the crops have to use low quality land, which require more labor to produce less. The result of this situation is the increase of prices for agricultural products. As wages in the early s. XIX are fixed, as they are set by the subsistence level and can not go lower than the profits made are reduced. It then raises the need to remove the protection of agriculture. Then it happens that in addition to the wages of farm workers are those devoted to other jobs, whose limit is the same. So as the food subsistence threshold mark up prices to have to raise wages by reducing profits. The conclusion of Ricardian thought is that wages depend on the price of food. Thus advocates free trade and specialization of countries, so that by importing cheaper foreign wheat may leave bad lands require much work for poor performance, but nevertheless it is necessary to meet the needs of the population. So, to grow with less labor and less capital down wages and increase profits. The basic idea of such thinking is that what determines the value of a commodity is labor. Which is one of the theoretical elements on which is borne Marxism. Somehow industrialization causes a change in the quantity of the production process, production rate, but it promotes a deep and qualitative transformation, while quantitative, is the happening of the technique through automation, robotics, electronics and computing. The implementation of these new media scale increases supply, reduce labor while the benefits are increased but at a disproportionate level. It happens as otherwise noted David Ricardo.
During the Earth Summit II, held in Johannesburg, South Africa, in August 2002 has developed a plan for sustainable development. One of the key approaches is to abolish government subsidies that rich countries give farmers, because they distort trade and prevents the consumption and production, not to have a profitable market in poor countries. No government in economically developed countries accept that condition, which is a prerequisite for progress in the Third World. is the primary element and the base of the rest. You can not apply without drawing on the rich another model, such as the Basic Income.
The problem of hunger in poor countries requires the development of agriculture, for which they should be able to export and sell in the market competitively. The benefit is going to be able to launch its production capacity. developments which leans slowly in rich countries, and should be strengthened is the promotion of organic farming, environmental restoration, forests while developing agriculture and horticulture specializing in certain goods which are essential requirements specificity as a matter of climate and land. This process would be a catastrophe in the rural and the economy if not addressed since the implementation of the Basic Income, which allows a balance between nature and economy, while another aa between rich and poor countries . That is, the Basic Income becomes a balancing measure, which is lacking in particular to all the studies on sustainable development.