The 2011 floods in Central America affected the territories of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. Were caused by low pressure systems that lasted more than a week, and the impact of weather phenomenon caused damage to local infrastructure, over a hundred deaths, and at least 800,000 homeless. The intensity of the events have been attributed to drastic climate change by experts.
The rains in Costa Rica began about October 7, and within days there were a preliminary amount of 17 cantons of the Pacific coast and Central Valley affected by landslides and floods. On 10 October, the Commission for National Emergency (CNE) declared a red alert, based on the presence of a low pressure system near the country producing "heavy with accumulated rainfall between 150 to 200 mm in 254 hours".
By day 20, the Commission for National Emergency (CNE) gave an estimated 12,000 victims, 995 people evacuated, four dead and two missing, "as a result of climate contingency, which exceeded the average monthly precipitation of water." For its part, the Ministry of Agriculture estimated losses in grasslands (20 thousand hectares destroyed) and the sugar sector (four thousand 300 hectares), rice (three thousand 200), and tomato.
The storm was rated one of the longest in the history of Costa Rica , broke the record for the most damaging aspects temporary road after reporting damage to over 1590 kilometers of roads throughout the country and 4,300 hectares sugar cane, 3,200 hectares of rice and 20,000 hectares of pasture flooded after the storm.
The rains began in El Salvador on October 10 and in the next ten days accumulated a record of 1,504 millimeters of water, which exceeded the levels of hurricane Mitch in 1998. In addition, an estimated 10% of the territory was affected by the floods, apart from the damage to agriculture, destruction of bridges and roads, caused by overflowing rivers and landslides. According to a report by the Service National Territorial Studies October 17, "the large amount of precipitation was caused by a low pressure that would later be classified as Tropical Depression 12E and that preceded a wide range depressionary formed in Central America ".
The Tropical Depression 12E hit Guatemala from 11 October, and after 14 hours of continuous rains were reported 42 sections of road damaged by landslides and overflowing rivers besides flooding. Some 14 of the 22 departments of the country were affected. President Alvaro Colom declared a state of public emergency on 17 October. The president said in a speech:
"These events put again exposed the vulnerability of our country against natural phenomena and climate change, the executive works primarily to save lives and restore circulation to the main roads ... The damage to infrastructure, economy and tourism also evident."
By 20 October, the National Coordinator for Disaster Reduction said the rains left at least 38 dead, 5 missing and 524,480 affected.
For its part, the Chamber of Agriculture of Guatemala explained that farm incomes in the country could "... reduced to about 37.5 million in dollars." Ministry of Agriculture also said that according to "their calculations 'partial' damage caused by rain to crops reach the 43 million quetzals (about $ 5.3 million)".
In the southern part of Honduras, the rains began on October 11 and caused the overflowing of the Choluteca River that hit the capital city of the homonymous department. Another department where damage was reported was Paradise Valley and Texiguat. The flooding affected several sections of road in the area.
Also in Nicaragua rains were reported from 10 October and the first 12 hours were recorded overflows into rivers and damage to the road network in the provinces of Chinandega and Leon, and Managua and Masaya, an undetermined number of homes ended up under water.
To the emergency, the Nicaraguan government headed by President Daniel Ortega declared a state of calamity and disaster throughout the country on 17 October also reported that 133,858 people were affected across the country, mainly in Managua, Carazo, Granada, Chinandega, León, Madriz and Esteli, where they had "15,000 families stranded by road closures and flooding".
By day 19, official data released figures "12 dead, one missing and 150,000 people homeless, as well as 75,000 refugees in isolated and 10,300 temporary shelters 104", product of the incessant rains.
In Panama there were about 900 evacuated after the overflowing of the Chiriquí Viejo River and the rupture of a natural dam formed by landslide-dammed water to Palo Blanco River.
President Ricardo Martinelli asked the people in the area of risk, help with the evacuation which saved many lives in Chiriquí . According to government figures, 450 people are in shelters, 250 in a gym and 150 in a secondary school located in Puerto Armuelles , others took refuge in the homes of relatives and / or friends.