Elements of the game
To play, you must have a chess board and chess pieces, even though two people who can memorize the positions, can play ( the blind ) just saying the moves. They should know the rules of the game. Optionally, use a chess clock, which is essential in the competitions.
To differentiate one party from another, the pieces of a player are of a different color, a clearly-called "white" and one of the other are dark, called "Black." Each player has 16 pieces (called chess pieces) of six different types of which each player has: eight pawns, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, a queen (also called "queen") and a king. Each piece moves on the board in a different way:
- The King can move in any direction (vertical, horizontal and diagonal) forward or backward one square.
- The queen also can move in any direction forward or backward on the board the number of boxes you want, until it meets another piece or the edge of the board.
- The Bishop can only move in a diagonal direction, as many boxes as you want to run into another piece or the edge.
- rook can only move in the vertical and horizontal, not diagonal, until it meets another piece or the edge of the board.
- The Knight moves 2 squares forward vertically and horizontally, or vice versa, by a movement of L, the only piece that can jump over other pieces.
- The pawn can only move one square vertically, unlike the other parts can not go backwards and can not capture opponent's pieces that are in the same direction you move, the pawn may capture pieces found in one square diagonally towards him, not those that are before them.
The word piece, can take three meanings, depending on the context:
- You can refer to any of the 32 figures (in this sense, the term chessman, it is synonymous).
- You can refer only to the queen, rook, bishop, knight, and perhaps also the king, to differentiate them from the peons.
- You can refer to only one minor piece (bishop or knight).
Since White has the advantage of making the first move, the color of the parts are assigned to each player by drawing lots. In tournaments, a player seeks to have the same number of games with white pieces and black pieces, either by making a fixture, the alternation of colors in each round, or the dispute of a few number of rounds .
The standard model of parts used in competitions called Staunton model (shown in adjacent image), designed in 1849 by Nathaniel Cook, and named on behalf of nineteenth-century English champion Howard Staunton .
The chessboard is a square divided into 64 squares or equal squares (8 × 8), also square, colored alternately light and dark. Each player stands facing the opponent's chess player, placing the board so that each player has a white square in the right corner.
The basic elements of Such as- Sankalpa from Swarnapali Balika National school science supplies in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka writes: We can protect our heritage by:Bhavna, Aakanksha, Bhavnish, Diksha, Garima and Ishita from Kamla Nehru Public school science supplies in Phagwara, India write: We think that indigenous people live in remote areas of the world and depend on fishing, shooting etc. the board are:
- Row. It is each of the eight lines of eight boxes that they are aligned horizontally with respect to the players. Are named with numbers from 1 to 8, starting from the first row with regard to the side of the white pieces.
- Column. It is each of the eight lines of eight boxes that they are aligned vertically with respect to the players. Are named with lowercase letters (a) through (h), starting from the first column left with respect to the side of the white pieces.
- Diagonal. It is each of the 16 lines that are formed by grouping the cells diagonally. The two major diagonals have eight boxes.
- Centre. The center of the board are the four central squares. By extension, sometimes including the 12 surrounding those four.
- Corners. Each of the four boxes located at the corners of the board.
- Edges. The two columns (a and b) and two rows (1 and 8) at the ends of the board.
A board may have the numbers and letters to identify the rows, columns and boxes, to record the development of games via the algebraic notation , which is the official notation. It is common in the chess world use this system to play and discuss games. It should, however, be recorded that many authors and scholars have used or prefer to continue using the so-called descriptive notation .
The chess clock
The chess clock is a two- clock timing of each player to make their moves. While the clock of the player whose turn is up, his opponent being held up when the former made his move and stop the clock, thereby starting the clock otherwise.
Analog chess clocks are based on a mechanical operation as to work in the rear is a nut, which must move in one direction until it can move more, called "wind the clock" and serves to make the clock run for a period of time than that of a game. Before starting a game with this kind of clock, players make sure to wind the clock, to be in full operational capacity and do not stop in the middle of a game. These analog watches have a feature called "flag", which is held by the minute for the final three minutes of time allotted to each player. When it exceeds this time, the minute you drop the flag, and the first player whose flag falls, he loses the game if you have not completed the set plays or exceeds the time limit.
Currently the most used are the digital chess clocks based on electronic operation by batteries , which allow you to set different rates of play, such as the Fischer system (increase in number of seconds per move) or Bronstein system (like Fischer system without exceeding the allotted start time) as well as to determine exactly what the first player finishes his time.
Time controls in chess born of the need to prevent players take too long to consider their moves, something very common until the late nineteenth century. In friendly games, the pace of play is usually decided by the players, who can decide whether to use a clock or not. Change in official tournaments in the time available for each player depends on the tournament type (normal, semi-fast, active chess, etc..) And is set by the tournament organizers. A player may have some time for the entire game, or to achieve a set number of moves, plus you can receive or not certain time bonus for each move made. If a player times out or is unable to perform the assigned number of moves, loses the game.
According to the duration of each game, this can be:
* Item blitz of lightning: one in which each player has a maximum of 15 minutes for the entire game, or games with all that time increment per move in which, for the sum of the increase multiplied by 60 and initial time of reflection does not get a lot more than 15 minutes.
* Quick Play: one in which the time for each player is between 15 and 60 minutes, or if played with an increase, one whose initial thinking time plus the sum of the increase multiplied by sixty, come within that range. Normally this rate is used in tie-game tournament played with normal rhythm, and time is set in 25 minutes.
Item * normal (classic rhythm): one in which the reflection time per player is more than 60 minutes. This is the rhythm of game used to master level. In tournaments with a large number of participants, there is usually a control of 90 minutes per player plus 15 seconds increment per move, while the elite tournament time controls are assigned to a number of moves over time to the end of the game.
The clock does not have games without a specific name, but popular in Spain , they also called friendly games or games of coffee. The name of friendly games, has been opposed to it is not a game of competition, so the result can not affect the rating , or create some kind of dispute or award classification, or create rivalry because of this. The name of items of coffee is due to the custom of playing such games, which are not competitive in the tables of a bar-café, usually a cultural center.