While the origin of chess is uncertain, the rules of modern chess began to form in Spain during the sixteenth century , and the rules have not changed significantly until the nineteenth century , when they acquired their current form.
The agency responsible for promulgating rules is the International Chess Federation ( FIDE ). FIDE rules are extensive and stringent, and apply in any chess tournament or big game.
This section presents in detail the conventional rules of the game, which is usually applied across chess game, regardless of level or goal, although some of these rules may vary slightly in types of special items such as blitz chess the blind, etc.
Initial position of pieces
The game starts with all pieces placed in its original position on the board. Each box of chess boards (64) or women (100), called squares.
Players should be placed facing each other with the board in half so that both have a white box in the squares of the respective right corner. The pieces are placed symmetrically about the players, except the queen and king, also symmetrically about the line of sight between players. Given the naming of rows and columns above, the white should occupy rows 1 and 2, the black rows 7 and 8.
Thus, each side will place his pieces in its first two rows. In the first row, the towers are placed in both corners, followed by horses and then the bishops. In the two central squares of the first row of each player are the king and queen, the queen is placed on the squares to be of the same color, and the king put in the adjoining central squares, ie, color contrary to it. Thus, the white player has his king on the right of his lady, and left black. It's called "flank or wing king" in the middle of the board consisting of the four columns that initially placed the king, while called "flank or wing woman" to the four columns that originally located the lady. In the second row of each player, he placed his eight pawns.
Note: many chess sets do not have the black and white, either in parts or on the board. This should not be confused and should always be light colors like white and dark as black. In particular cases where the sides can not be differentiated by their color, as is the case with many chess craft representing opposing groups should be agreed by mutual agreement which side is considered white.
The players move alternately, one of its parts, except the case of the moving castle in two, as explained later.
The player who has the white, so that in chess you remember who wears the white and not who starts the game. The game begins with a small but significant advantage (it has been the target gets about 55% of the points in play compared with 45% black, in databases that collect millions of items).
In the same squares can be only one piece, never more than one simultaneously.
If one squares is occupied by a friendly piece, we can not put another, whereas we can occupy squares that was previously occupied by an opponent's piece: our room occupy the squares and the opponent's piece is removed from the game: this fact is called capture, kill or eat the counterpart by ours.
Each piece has its way of moving, which is retained throughout the game, including special moves: passant pawn and castling.
The only piece that can jump are the horses, or even the towers in the exceptional case of castling. To jump means that a piece pausing on top of another piece, either opposite or the same side.
How to make a move
Each move must be made with one hand, the castle included, for which it must first move the king and then the tower. If chess clock it should be pressed with the same hand.
part played, part played
Every player, when in his turn to play, has to move the first piece he plays. If one player notes that the pieces on the board are not properly centered over your squares the player whose turn to play, and you only have to play, you select one or more pieces on their squares, provided that prior express intention to do so, for example, saying "compose" -. The player who is not on duty can not touch the pieces.
Unless the player having to play has indicated its intention to "write" position to play the part he plays, if done deliberately. If a player rolls, unintentionally, some part of the board must reconstruct the position as soon as possible. If playing with a clock has to do at the expense of his time.
If you play one or more pieces themselves, you must move the first piece touched. If the first piece touched can not move must move one of which has touched. if the part that touches the board move the piece touched must be left in that box. If you play one or more pieces of the opponent, you must capture the first piece touched which can be captured.
Touching a piece of each color, you must capture the opponent's piece with it, or if this is illegal, move or capture the first piece touched which can be moved or capturar.si Part rises another player will eat for have caught.
If it proves impossible to establish what part is played in the first place, is the piece itself that is considered as a piece played.
If a player deliberately touches his king and rook must castle on that side if it were legal to do so.
If a player, intending to castle, touches the king or king and rook simultaneously, and were illegal castling on that side, the player must make another legal move with his king, including the castle on the other side. If the king has no legal move, the player is free to make any legal move.
If a player deliberately touches a rook and then his king can not castle on that side on that play, and should move the tower or the king.
If none of the pieces touched can be moved or captured, the player can make any legal move.
Who has to claim to be playing the piece played is the adversary, but must do so before playing him a piece, otherwise you lose the right to claim.
A piece played can be played on any legal squares. The square chosen is only set when you release the piece or touches the board. Once released the part can not be removed. It is at this point is considered made the play. If playing with a clock, with the same hand, is starting opponent's clock, but do not prevent the adversary may make his move, with the proviso that the opponent always has to allow that you start the clock once the play-
When a player moves a piece differently than it has to play, for example move a horse like a bishop or puts his king in check , or being in check move something else to get rid of check-the move does not it is an illegal move. In that case return to the previous position and made another move, taking into account the part played standards. The offender will receive a penalty. If in the same game three plays a player makes illegal given the game as lost.
If made more than an illegal move, for example have moved several pieces while a king in check, is due to restore the position to play before the first illegal move. In reality this is only possible if you keep score. The new move is legal under the regulations of the piece played.
If during a game is found that some parts have been displaced from their squares, the position should be reinstated before the irregularity. If you can not identify this position, the game continues from the last identifiable position prior to the occurrence of the irregularity.