When the game begins, a player controls 16 white pieces and another player controls 16 black pieces. The color assigned to each player is often circumvented, although in the case of tournaments depends on the pairing of the players. The board is positioned so that both players have a blank squares in the box at the respective right. The chess pieces are placed in the way shown in the adjacent diagram. The rooks, knights and bishops are often closer to the king called a king (ie king rook) and further away, closer to the queen called queen (example: QB). Also, the side where they are at home both kings is often called kingside and the other flank queen.
In traditional chess, the chess pieces are always placed in the manner described. There are variants (rare in practice) in which the situation of the chess pieces in the first row may vary ( Fischer Random Chess or Chess 960).
The players move in turns. At each turn, a player can only move a piece (with the exception of a special move called castling , in which the king moves two squares to the right or left and the rook is located at the opposite side). The player who plays with white pieces is always the one who moves first.
Each type of piece moves in a different way, although the common rules on the movement of the parts are:
- The pieces can not jump, movement, one above the other (with the exception of horse that can jump over other, moving in "L", and the rook in the castle ).
- A piece can not occupy a square occupied by another piece of the same color, but a new one, otherwise occupied, removed from the board. This action is known as "take" or "capture" and is voluntary decision of the player.
- The boxes which can move a piece, are said to be controlled by it. If a part is within the cells controlled by a piece of opposite color, is attacked by it.
- The king is the only piece that can not move or go through boxes controlled by counter parts.
A move to attack the king is known as check , is required for the player whose king is attacked out of check. If there is no defense against a check, the king is in checkmate . That's the goal and who inflicts the opponent's king wins.
A chess game also ends when a player decides to surrender or give up, or you exceed the allotted time, in either case the opponent wins the game. Also, the game ends when you can not win for either player, or if both agree to this result, known as tables or tie. Likewise, the game ends in a draw if repeated three times in the same position on the board (by repetition of moves) when neither player has enough pieces to checkmate, or if the player whose turn it can not make any move regulation, a situation known as drowned.
In tournaments, and in order to compute the results, the winner is awarded a point a game, half point for each player who made tables, and zero points to the loser of a game.