Chess tactics means, the set of procedures, usually involving one or a few plays, for which a player attempts to run on the board a simple idea. The purpose of a tactical maneuver is to get some kind of advantage, among which the most characteristic is winning material.

The white queen is nailed by the black queen.By the way the pieces move, tactical maneuvering characteristics emerge. For example, the horse is able to attack two squares away from each other and regardless of which there are many pieces around. This encourages the piece that can do double strikes often (also called pins). As its name implies, a double attack is one in which attacks two pieces at once, so that one of them will necessarily be captured. Another example is the maneuver known as fixed on where we reach a certain part of a line or diagonal and it turns out it can not be removed ("is stuck"), because if it does, another valuable piece is behind the attacked piece in that row or diagonal would be threatened. There is also a diversion, in which a part is forced to leave his place, which exerted a defensive task. There are many other such typical maneuvers, which occur very frequently and that all players become familiar soon. Some of the maneuvers most important features are detailed in the article on tactics.

A particular kind of tactical maneuver known as a combination in which one side, often sacrificing material, forces the other to a series of moves or risk losing the game. The objective is to obtain a combination of the sacrificed material change most important advantages, such as checkmate, or recover more than the material below. Some combinations require a high degree of originality and creativity, so they are one of the most spectacular chess. Therefore, some players, and especially the former world champion Mikhail Tal, have become famous mainly for their ability to perform unexpected and extremely complicated combinations.

The strategy

Chess strategy is known as the set of plans takes a player in a game medium to long term. Strategic decisions can influence the future of the game for many plays, or even entirely.

A typical example is the strategic decision to eliminate parts in order to reach an endgame. This can be advantageous on several occasions. For example, if you have material advantage, that advantage is often easier to exploit the less parts there. On the other hand, if the opponent has the initiative or even a strong attack, replacement parts can also contribute to this initiative or attack dissipates. The long-range strategic decisions I need to change parts should then be implemented by means of specific tactics.

In chess strategy is usually defined two different types of elements. On the one hand are the static elements that influence the game for long periods. On the other hand, are the dynamic elements that influence over a shorter period. Often, strategic decisions are to choose which among all the elements is the most important. For example, it is often possible at the beginning of the opening to get to capture a pawn in exchange for a considerable delay in the development of the pieces. The question is when the static advantage is having more material will be offset by the dynamic advantage conferred by having a better development. This comparison between the two benefits will be what a player will take risks or not to perform the capture maneuver.

Are typical static advantages:

  • Having more material.
  • A better pawn structure.
  • Control more space, especially in the middle of the board.
  • The improved position of the king.
  • Moving parts against parts constrained by fixed pawns.
  • Two bishops against bishop and knight or two horses.

While they are typical dynamic advantages:

  • Best development, at the opening.
  • Gain time.
  • Have the initiative or to begin an attack.
  • Parts better coordinated.

A fundamental concept in chess strategy is to formulate a game plan where the player establishes what you want out of a position. Is in the execution of the game plan, ie the passage of the general strategic ideas to tactical execution, where conflict arises between the two players.

A strategic decisions are also known as positional decisions, and the game that develops without obvious tactical reasons, a slow and progressive, is often called positional play. Players also are usually referred to as positional or tactical, depending on your point stronger.

Relationship between tactics and strategy

For some advanced players, the game is simply a series of tactical events, often unrelated. The games seem to be won or lost almost by chance, for example to "make a bad play" that loses material. As you move through the game, however, players take control such that the most serious errors are disappearing. Since then, the game often defined to whoever has a better understanding of how to play a certain position, a greater strategic understanding.

In general, we can say that the tactic is most important to be a strong player, since the calculation of specific variants without excessive errors is essential to play at a high level. However, the vast majority of chess positions are so complicated that the simple calculation is not sufficient to orient themselves and therefore must rely on many occasions to assess the options available through a global vision of how the game will develop medium- long term. Normally a player who is very strong tactically weaker strategically and often use their intuition in their decisions. Very advanced players are able to develop a chess intuition that allows them to quickly rule out the wrong moves with little calculation.

Therefore, a great player is that you get a good balance between tactics and strategy. Still, every player has strengths and weaknesses. Even among some champions may be noted that they had above all a very wise and original vision positional (José Raúl Capablanca, Alexander Alekhine, Mikhail Botvinnik, Tigran Petrosian, Anatoly Karpov) and those highlighted above all by his extraordinary tactics (Emanuel Lasker, Alexander Alekhine, Mikhail Tal).

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